C is for citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ

Citta means consciousness/mind. Vritti literally means whirl or can be translated as thought waves. Nirodha means restriction or control. In Patanjali’s eightfold path the second sutra in Chapter 1 is Yogaḥ cittavṛtti-nirodha. which can be translated as:

Yoga is the control of the thought waves of the mind.

Prabhavananda & Isherwood (1969)¹

This is the essence of yoga philosophy though I would argue with the idea of control. Perhaps an ‘increased awareness’ would be a better way to describe what we need to do to approach life with serenity.

It is normal for our minds to be busy and distracted with a multitude of thoughts streaming through our consciousness. This is our profane everyday consciousness and it can get very wearisome. Swept along by our monkey mind flitting here and there we move through our days in a whirl not always being as efficient as we would like to be. Anyone who has done any ‘stream-of-consciousness’ writing will know how busy and indeed creative the mind is. But it often isn’t very focussed.

All the practices of yoga aim for one goal: that of calming the mind so that we can view the world with more clarity and focus. Yoga is about developing the inner witness who can perceive the reality of the ego’s constant flitting from one thought to the other.

The eightfold path (ashtanga) of Patanjali gives us a toolbox to allow us to approach the ‘still point’ of deep calm and surrender that lies within each of us. By practising yoga we begin to see through the layers of our own conditioning and begin to unravel the suffering we may have been through. The techniques of yoga aid us in moving forward with more clarity and focus in our lives and ultimately gaining a sense of peace. All is well.

Yoga Philosophy is complex. However if the yoga practitioner can simply understand the idea of concentration on a single point then s/he is well on the way to benefitting from his/her practice. This may mean simply bringing awareness to the sensations within the whole body as s/he moves into, holds and moves out of a posture. Being able to switch to witness mode at any moment is the fruit of yoga practice.

Seated sculpture in group LOS RAQUEROS on the waterfront in Santander, Spain © Sanandi-jacq

1 Prabhavananda, Swami and Christopher Isherwood. (1969) How to Know God, The Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali. New York: New American Library (translation and commentary). pp.159-161

This A-Z series of blogs focuses on unpacking the Sanskrit terms used in yoga.

Los Raqueros

Los Raqueros, Santander, Spain © Sanandi-jacq 2015

Los Raqueros are a series of Bay Sculptures on the waterfront in Santander, Northern Spain. The sculptures represent young children who used to scavenge round the docks for a living. They were known as ‘wreckers’ from the word ‘shipwreckers’. The children used to dive into the waters of the bay to collect coins that passersby threw in for them. I am particularly fond of the sculpture sitting on what looks like a mushroom and is intently staring into the water. I was so enamoured by this statue that I used the photo on the cover of my Yoga dissertation in 2017 because it represents a sense of single-pointed focus.

Jose Cobo is the local sculptor and the sculptures were mounted in position on the waterfront in 1999.

This photo was taken on one of my trips towards finishing the Camino de Santiago from 2014-2017. My friend and I flew into Santander then took a bus down to the Camino trail. Gill and I were walking the Camino to remember my walking partner Alan who died suddenly of an aneurysm in 2013. We finished the 500 miles by taking two weeks off work each year over the four years from 2014-2017.

Los Raqueros plaque, Santander, Spain © Sanandi-jacq

the rakers
Typical Santander characters, described by Jose Maria de Pereda, who in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries frequented the machinas and used to take a school in Peurtochico, diving in the waters of the bay to collect the coins that the curious threw at them.


Nearest translation I could get through translation websites. Thank you Rosetta Stone. Not sure what ‘machinas’ means but from the context appears to be a place name.

B is for Bandha


Bandha is a psychomuscular energy lock in the body which redirects the flow of energy and locks it in a particular area. Muscles and organs are contracted and controlled. There are three main bandhas in the human body.

Moola Bandha means perineum contraction and is probably the most well known of the bandhas. This bandha is a contraction of muscles in the pelvic floor. In men the area between the anus and testes is contracted whereas in women the area contracted is behind the cervix where the uterus meets the vagina. There are numerous benefits from performing moola bandha including:

  • stimulates the nervous system in the pelvic area
  • tones the excretory system and urino-genital system
  • relieves constipation and piles and may have a positive effect on the prostate gland
  • lessens the impact of depression by realigning mind, body and spirit

Uddiyana Bandha is an abdominal contraction. To be effective it needs to be practised on an empty stomach and ideally the practitioner needs to have empty bowels. Contraction of this Bandha is an advanced technique and should be practised under guidance. The benefits are many including:

  • relieves abdominal and stomach disturbances such as constipation, indigestion and diabetes.
  • tones the abdominal organs
  • stimulates blood circulation in the abdominal area.
  • stimulates the solar plexus around the centre of the belly.
  • When engaged the Uddiyana Bandha can help the practitioner lift up in a controlled jump in Ashtanga Yoga practice thus giving a sense of lightness to the body as though flying up into a jump. Uddiyana literally means ‘flying up’.

Jalandhara Bandha is a contraction of the throat area. It is a lock that stimulates the blood vessels and nerves of the neck. The head is bent forward so that the chin presses on the neck or throat pit. The practice once again is best done under the guidance of a yogic practitioner. The benefits include:

  • gives a feeling of relaxation
  • relieves stress and anxiety.
  • stimulates and balances the thyroid glands
  • regulates metabolism.

For details on how to perform the bandhas see entry 3 in the Bibliography below. It is best to find a qualified teacher to explain and demonstrate exactly how the locks are to be made.

This A-Z series of blogs focuses on unpacking the Sanskrit terms used in yoga.


1 Hewitt, James, (1977, 1983), The Complete Yoga Book, Cresset Press

2 Long, Ray, (2006), The Key Muscles of Hatha Yoga, Scientific Keys Volume 1

3 Saraswati, Satyananda, (2005 reprint) Asana, Pranayama, Mudra, Bandha, Yoga Publications Trust, Bihar, India

Ashtanga, Ahimsa & Asana


The general yogic term ashtanga literally means ‘eight limbs’. All yoga styles follow the eight limbs set out by Patanjali¹, author of the Yoga Sutras¹. He named the eight limbs of yoga as follows: Yama = ethical disciplines; Niyama = self observation; Asana = posture; Pranayama = breath control; Pratyahara = sense withdrawal; Dharana = concentration; Dhyana = meditation; Samadhi = a state of joy and peace

There is a style of yoga called ‘Ashtanga Yoga’ which is a dynamic form of yoga founded by K. Pattabhi Jois consisting of set sequences which are grouped into series. The whole style integrates vinyasa – which literally means movement between poses accompanied by regulated breathing (ujjayi breath).


Ahimsa is one of the ethical disciplines of yoga. It is the first principle of the Yamas and as such is the first principle of yoga. It translates as ‘non-harm’. This principle of non-harming is to be applied to the body as well as everything in life. In terms of the body it means that it is important to be aware of the body when practising the yoga postures and to modify the poses and practices based on the individual’s particular needs and any underlying health conditions. Everyone can practice yoga from the youngest to the oldest but because every body is different it is necessary to engage with ahimsa to ensure safe practice. When practising yoga it is worth remembering the ethical guideline of ahimsa:

  1. The whole ethos of yoga is about self-exploration which means that there should never be an emphasis on doing a posture perfectly or competing with yourself or others.
  2. As our bodies are all different shapes and sizes with genetics giving us varying lengths of bones, etc., not all yoga poses will be accessible and therefore modifications will be necessary.
  3. Don’t do anything that hurts or increases pain. STOP what you are doing at once.
  4. Be aware of how your body is responding to a posture.
  5. If you are injured or have had an operation, give yourself time to heal before re-starting your yoga practice.
  6. The secret to ahimsa in yoga practice is tuning in and listening to body, mind and spirit and not acting in any way that can cause harm.


Asana, is the third limb of yoga and in Sanskrit it literally means ‘posture’. The quality of the posture is also established in the meaning of the word. A yoga posture is intended to bring steadiness to the body and calmness to the mind.

In the ancient yogic texts Patanjali describes ‘asana’ as follows:

Posture (asana) is to be seated in a position which is firm but relaxed.

Chapter 2 Sutra 46 The Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali¹

Not all yoga postures are seated but still the aim of all yoga postures is to get oneself into a state of mind for stillness and meditation. Any yoga posture should allow for the free flow of energy and vitality throughout the body without restriction from tension and other obstacles of the mind and body. Ultimately the body and mind should be so stress-free that the yogi can meditate.

The postures or asanas we all know have many shapes and include standing, sitting and lying poses. There are forward bends, backbends, side bends, inversions, twists and balances.

In the explanation of Patanjali’s sutra 2:46 Prabhavananda & Isherwood¹ state: ‘Asana means two things: the place on which the yogi sits, and the manner in which he sits there.’¹

All of the postures or poses we all know are leading towards the ultimate sitting posture in stillness with an erect spine – steady and calm with our focus on the infinite.

Posture becomes firm and relaxed through control of the natural tendencies of the body, and through meditation on the infinite.

Chapter 2 Sutra 47 The Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali¹


1 Prabhavananda, Swami and Christopher Isherwood. (1969) How to Know God, The Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali. New York: New American Library (translation and commentary). pp.159-161

This A-Z series of blogs focuses on unpacking the Sanskrit terms used in yoga.

Blogging books

As a newbie blogger three months ago I needed some help setting up a blog even though I had recent experience in digital publishing working in a publishing house. Looking around the numerous blogging books available the three publications I have found most useful are listed below. If any of you awesome bloggers know of any recent books or even blog sites to recommend regarding blogging advice I would love to hear from you.

  • Houghton, Robin (2015), The Golden Rules of Blogging (and when to break them), ILEX PRESS
  • Sabin-Wilson, Lisa (2017), WordPress for dummies, 8th Edition, for dummies®️A Wiley Brand
  • Williams, Richard N. (2014, How to blog made easy, FLAME TREE PUBLISHING

I still have much to learn about blogging. The journey is both enlightening and fascinating. By just throwing myself into it I have probably learned more than reading all the books though.

The above three titles are great reference books on a bloggers shelf (a digital shelf perhaps!). I could have written full book reviews on these books but given the dates of publication I thought they’d probably been through the reviewing mill so I have just listed the books for your reference.

Thanks to all those bloggers who have liked posts during my baby steps into the blogosphere. I am stunned at the boundless creativity out there and enjoy exploring other people’s blogs. Blog on …

What is synchronicity?

Synchronicity means ‘the simultaneous occurrence of events which appear significantly related but have no discernible causal connection’. The origin of this word was coined in the 1950s by Carl Jung (1875-1961) Swiss psychologist who collaborated with Sigmund Freud in developing the psychoanalytic theory of personality. He later disassociated from Freud as he found Freud’s focus on sexuality masked the true nature of a human being.

Here is a simple true-life story that illustrates synchronicity well.

I hadn’t seen my yoga teacher, now in her 70s, for some time. I wondered if she was still teaching. Over the last weekend she was very much on my mind and I thought about contacting her. I had made no move to do so for months. My attitude being let it happen when the time is right.

Earlier this week I had just finished teaching the morning classes. Time for lunch and maybe a visit to a garden centre on the way home. In my pocket I had a note with the name of a plant I wanted to buy: ERIGERON.

Pushing a trolley with a squeaky wheel I trawled round the alphabet and eventually I came to the letter E. No sign of ERIGERON. Odd. I thought it would be popular. I had seen it in Cornwall sprawling across walls like a small voluptuous daisy in several hues of pink and white.

Erigeron in Cornwall © Sanandi-jacq

Giving up on the plant-whose-name-I-couldn’t-pronounce I looked for other plant orphans that might like a home. Whilst moving up and down the aisles adoring plants and wanting to give them all a home, I noticed a familiar couple in front of me. Believe it or not – it was my yoga teacher and her husband also seeking plants! What a happy coincidence!

Delighted at the thought of a reunion I jumped out in front of her (later thinking that was not a wise move). Though a little stunned she was equally pleased to see me again after a year. ‘Well. Well. Fancy seeing you. I thought you had moved on again’.

We exchanged pleasantries and updates on status. I asked her what plants she was seeking.

‘A daisy-like plant with an unpronounceable name,’ She said and took a slip of paper from her handbag.

And there it was in black and white – ERIGERON.

I pulled out my note. ‘SNAP! The very same plant I’m after. What are the chances of that!’

Well, if that doesn’t illustrate the idea of synchronicity … .

Can you recall any tales of synchronicity in your life? What explanation would you give for such events?


Postscript: The nursery didn’t have the plant. We said we’d phone the other if we found a nursery that did. Let’s hope that is some time soon.

Cat, teeth, car

Some days everything seems to go awry. But somehow in the chaos we are shifted out of the status quo and our daily habits. For a while we experience life afresh. New patterns are formed. Received wisdom is questioned.

Take yesterday. A fairly ordinary working day except I had a dentist appointment in the afternoon. The morning proceeded more or less as planned. I had fewer students in my yoga classes but that was accounted for. It is summer after all and people need a break.

Things started to go awry just as I was leaving the morning classes. As I turned out onto the main road from the teaching venue I nearly ran over a tabby cat. I was going at the statutory 30 miles an hour maybe less. A blur of grey and black fur dashed just in front of my wheels and a red collar was the echoing memory. No swerving yet I was observant enough to know I was within inches of inadvertently killing a beloved pet. Running over a pet cat would have crucified my day. But no, I was let off that drama. The cat lived another of its nine lives.

Nearing home I crossed the mini roundabout in a slightly skewed fashion and hit the curb on the other side (rare event!) but continued on relatively unscathed except for my driving pride. Just a little bump. My steering was not as steady as usual my intuition sensed but my rational mind thought no more about it. My stomach was calling for lunch. Body wins over mind.

Salad lunch alfresco with my partner and cat was a pleasant interlude before facing the dentist’s chair. I allowed myself to fully enjoy the present moment to allay the fears of the future encounter with the dentist. Then to the bathroom to diligently circle the electronic toothbrush from tooth to tooth easing out any green flotsam. Funny how obsessively we can clean our teeth if we know they are going to be inspected. Being such a hot day I also had a shower so I could grace the dentist with a pristine presence!

At 2pm with plenty of time to spare, as I hate being late for anything especially appointments and meetings, I got into the car and backed out of the driveway. Thud. Thud. Thud. What the XYZ was that! My partner stuck his head out of the study window and pointed at a car tyre. Dead flat front passenger tyre. What the XYZ am I going to do now?

All yogic calm disappeared for a fraction of a second. Scenarios ran through my head. Can’t get to the dentist. Oh no. Can’t teach tonight. Call the breakdown company. They take an age. But the dentist is waiting … . Present moment awareness kicks in suddenly. Strategic scheming. Partner can give me a lift. At that moment he came out and offered me said lift. Initial issue resolved.

Dentist’s chair. No anaesthetic. Routine cleaning job but boy was it uncomfortable until I let my mind wander over what I was going to do when I left the dentist. I tuned out of the present moment and was in future planning mode. It was only later that I reflected on my yogic training about being in the present moment. In the dentist’s chair the last place I wanted to be was the present moment focussing on every minute stimulus of my gums being poked! My mind was better off in the past or future. What a revelation! It made me think about the importance of questioning received wisdom. Always be in the present moment? Bullshit! What am I missing here? That’s for some guru to explain to me in minimalist language.

Something had shifted in my mind. A questioning.

I had to wait at a bus stop to get home from the dentist’s. It had been years since I had waited at a bus stop. So used to driving a car. There had been a time in my youth where I was anti cars and only took public transport in three different cities – London, Milan and Rome. All great fun and here I was, several decades later, having to use my initiative on the public transport and feeling all at a loss.

Found a bus stop. No good. Destination not featured. Continued to next bus stop. A whole range of buses. Chose the bus I thought was right but realised later, when the bus didn’t materialise at the allotted time, that it only ran at the weekend. Re-scanned the timetables and a few minutes later I was sure I had the right bus. 310 seemed to be the most frequent and had an abbreviation next to it which meant ‘school’. And wonders of wonders it happened to be coming imminently and if I missed that there were several close on its tail. Jackpot! Three in a row.

On a bus. Surprised at the price of £4 for single trip destination. But then I am behind the times and prices have inflated greatly. Up to the top deck. Wandering round the countryside it would seem. At first I felt annoyed then relaxed into the present moment. Marvellous. I get a chance to look inside people’s gardens and houses from the top deck. Wow! This is fabulous. I am seeing these towns and villages from a new angle and perspective. Time has slowed down. I am not focussing on driving. I can observe the countryside and the gardens and neighbourhoods from on high. Time has definitely slowed down. I would have been so lulled into the present moment but an urgency gripped my mind that I needed to get that flat tyre sorted and that meant contacting the breakdown company (which will remain nameless but they are wonderful and over the last few years have helped me and my old car out of many a scrape). FLASH. BING. What kind of a present moment was I in now?

Was I in the present moment of the lulling quality of a bus meandering from town to village to town? Ot was I in the present moment of the emergency of getting a tyre fixed so I could teach another yoga class in the evening?

What does living in the present moment actually mean?

Tree stump creature

Tree stump that takes the shape of a supplicating creature made me stop in my tracks the other day. It seems normal for us to seek out the features of faces all around us.The psychology of survival perhaps. Does anyone else see the same creature looking up towards the sky?

Seeing creatures in tree stumps © Sanandi-jacq